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The company looked to sell off its pulp and paper assets along with prince online dating assets in its steel and transportation sectors.

History of Companhia Vale do Rio Doce

With Brazil then accounting for 40 percent of Latin America's economy as a whole, this was a significant undertaking. CVRD is awarded exclusive mining rights to Carajas. The company's first long-term iron ore supply contracts raymond e companhia online dating also signed in Mineral-rich Brazil used this to its advantage, garnering favors from the Allied nations.

Besides his creation in of Petrobas, a government-owned oil monopoly, the last years of Vargas' rule were lacking in industrial-based achievements. Brazilian government takes control of CVRD operations.

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Four additional subsidiaries were incorporated in Inthe company was supplying 80 percent of Brazil's iron ore exports. By that time, an aging Vargas realized his political clout was waning and he began losing favor among the Brazilian industrial elite. A pelletizing plant, Companhia Nipo-Brasileira de Pelotizacao-Nibrasco, was set up as a joint venture with a group of Japanese steel mills headed by Nippon Steel that year.

The sale of CVRD was considered controversial because, unlike other state-owned companies, it was profitable and well-managed. At that time, geological explorations began to reveal abundant supplies of iron concentrated in the rich earth of the remote Minas Gerais state, where three billion tons of the ore lay buried.

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InBrazil's first Republican Constitution dramatically altered the nation's mining regulations to allow landowners the rights to mineral reserves found on their property. Once the task of modernization was nearly complete, it was time for private enterprise to take over to improve the efficiency lifemates dating site the economy.

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But Brazil was in the midst of an economic crisis during these years, and citizens were ready for new solutions that were not explored during the years of military rule. Inthe company announced record iron ore sales of million tons. As Vargas tightened his political control over Brazil, he began to focus on a pro-development philosophy.

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InCVRD began to focus on its core businesses of mining and logistics. With a network of railways, ports and shipping lines to move the millions of tons of ore it produces each year, CVRD is truly a multi-faceted industrial jewel that remains a source of pride for Brazilians.

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After decades of military rule, democracy came to the forefront with the drafting of the new Constitution in October The company began divesting non-core assets in order to revive interest in CVRD stock, which had begun to lose value since privatization.

Privatization on the Horizon By the late s, political and economic turmoil in Brazil prompted Constitutional reform efforts in the Congress. Just as it had done with the Vitoria-Minas railroad, CVRD began constructing an integrated mine-railroad-port system to accommodate the ore mined from Carajas.

Later, the company incorporated its own shipping arm, Vale do Rio Doce Navegacao SA—Docenave, which has grown to become one of the top 10 shipping companies in the world.

The early s saw several more start-ups for CVRD. InCVRD began developing portals related to its mining and logistics businesses.

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InCVRD became the world's largest iron ore exporter, a title the company still holds, with 16 percent of the sea-born market for this product. Political rivals and rumors of corruption began to plague Vargas, who committed suicide in the presidential palace in Dauster announced plans in to expand CVRD's low-level alumina, aluminum and bauxite base to build stronger alternate sources of revenue.

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That year the company used local and foreign capital to start operations at Eletrovale, Nova Era in Minas Gerais State. Company is listed on New York Stock Exchange.

Although CSN was Brazil's largest steel maker, two more powerful Brazilian consortiums were considered the likely winners of the auction. In earlyCVRD sold its interest in Bahia Sul as a first step toward withdrawing from the pulp and paper industry, and in March of that year the company sold its Two more mining subsidiaries were incorporated that year: A new president, Juscelino Kubitschek, advocated many of the same modernization ideas of Vargas, but his equally ambitious plan involved a triangulated strategy between the Brazilian state-owned companies, private Brazilian firms, and European and American nationals.

CVRD is incorporated as a federally owned company. Given Brazil's history, it looked as if attracting foreign investors would remain a challenge. It is a major logistics player in Brazil, owning and operating railroads, maritime terminals and a shipping company. For the last 50 years, the state had directly intervened in the Brazilian economy by running its largest industrial companies, including CVRD.

The company also began forming Valepontocom and other Internet ventures to develop an e-commerce business. By this time Vargas had been out of power for four years, but he was elected to the presidency again in CSN was under the direction of Benjamin Steinbruch, who was 43 and considered to be a relative upstart in the Brazilian business community, but CVRD's iron ore business, transportation network and other business assets made Steinbruch's company an overnight giant in the steel industry.

Some argued the document gave the government too many responsibilities, while imposing undesirable restrictions on foreign investors. InVargas sought to establish capital-intensive national industries, with emphasis on steel, electricity, transportation and weaponry.

InCVRD reported its best-ever financial performance with profits of 1, billion Reals, a new record for private companies in Brazil. With the Kubitshcek plan underway, the late s proved to be the most productive in Brazil's history.

Geological surveys would later prove that Carajas held the world's largest iron ore reserves, more than 18 billion tons. The Vargas years in Brazil are characterized by the creation of a powerful interventionist federal government, and this sentiment applied to the nation's valuable supply of mineral reserves.

To fully understand the history behind CVRD, one must look at the economic and geo-political environment of Brazil over the last 50 years.

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CVRD becomes the world's largest iron ore exporter. After weeks of worker-led protests outside the Rio de Janeiro stock exchange and court-ordered delays, a Brazilian consortium led by CSN emerged as the winner of the privatization auction for CVRD in May Beginning centuries before the founding of CVRD, explorers had traveled Brazil's remote Doce River Valley in search of gold and other precious natural resources.

In addition to iron ore, it has significant interests in aluminum, steel, manganese, pulp and paper, gold, copper, kaolin, potash and other natural resources. Still, progress toward privatization was slow in order to ensure public support.

One effect of the constitutional changes was that a more negative attitude developed toward the state monopolies held in energy and mining, and it was this shift in attitude that paved the way toward the eventual privatization of these industries.

Dauster took on a complex shareholder structure and a cumbersome group of non-core businesses when he inherited the helm. The outcome of that year's presidential election was challenged by a political-military insurrection, with power ultimately handed to Getulio Vargas.

It was through this prospecting drive that CVRD discovered 35 new deposits of 11 different minerals in 13 Brazilian states. Building a Conglomerate CVRD continued to incorporate numerous subsidiaries during the next two decades.

Political concerns arose over the growing foreign ownership of mines at this time.

Global footprint

Huge mining companies in France, the United Kingdom, the United States and Belgium swiftly purchased many of these iron-ore beds at well below market value.

With the help of his other company, the Vitoria-Minas Railroad, Farquhar planned to build a monopoly in Brazilian iron ore production and exports. Starting from two integrated mine-railroad-port systems, CVRD grew to become a symbol of Brazil's industrial prowess over the course of the second half of the twentieth century.